The Trinidad Bothrops is definitely NOT B. asper. iv, 162 pp. xiv, 477 pp. [2], B. asper occurs throughout the inter-Andes valleys of Colombia across the Caribbean coastal plain through central Venezuela north of the Orinoco as far east as the Delta Amacuro region. Herpetological Circular No. The western diamondback rattlesnake or Texas diamond-back (Crotalus atrox) is a venomous rattlesnake species found in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Bothrops asper (common names Terciopelo [English], Cuatro Narices [Spanish], and often called the fer-de-lance among many other colloquial names, but see discussion under common names below[2][3][4]) is a highly venomous pit viper species, ranging in distribution from southern Mexico to northern South America. In untreated cases, local necrosis frequently occurs and may cause gangrene which often requires amputation. B. asper, together with Crotalus durissus, is the leading cause of snakebite in Yucatán, Mexico. 38. mass as snakes aged. Eagle Mountain Publishing, LC. Etimología. Köhler, Gunther (2008). Serpiente terciopelo, Bothrops asper es una especie de serpiente perteneciente a la familia Viperidae. It is not known whether this species exhibits annual or biannual reproduction.[22]. [3] [4]. Espesye sa bitin ang Bothrops atrox. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Eagle Mountain, Utah. xi + 402 pp. This is a reference to these snakes' highly sensitive heat-detecting pit organs. The two sexes are born the same size, but by age 7 to 12 months, females begin to grow at a much faster rate than males. In recent decades herpetologist have preferred the name Terciopelo for Bothrops asper,[14][15][16][17] although the term fer-de-lance is still common in popular usage. An Bothrops asper in nahilalakip ha genus nga Bothrops, ngan familia nga Viperidae. i-xii, 1-300 pp. Liner, Ernest A. and Gustavo Cass-Andreu. "Reproductive biology and the distribution of the Terciopelo,,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Apices either alternate or are reflective of each other over the middorsal line. [28], This species was once regarded as a subspecies of B. atrox and can still often be confused with it. Herpetologist Douglas March died after being bitten by this species. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Basically, the B. atrox complex populations from the northern edge of S. America (& Trinidad) are quite variable morphologically and genetically, but all are closer to B. atrox than to B. asper, both genetically and morphologically (scalation, pattern, etc. (2013). [20], The timing of the reproductive cycle and the litter size of this species vary according to location: in some parts of Costa Rica, for example, it is more prolific than in others. Cannibalism has been reported in both captive and wild juveniles and the species is known to scavenge on dead frogs and rodents. [2], It is found on the Gulf - Atlantic versant of eastern Mexico as far north as the state of Tamaulipas, southward into Central America, including Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. [2], Specimens of this species may weigh up to 6 kilograms (13 lb) and are often 1.2 to 1.8 meters (3.9 to 5.9 ft) in length. This is true in the premontane forest in Costa Rica, the cloud forest of Guatemala and Mexico, or the lower montane wet forest in the Caribbean Region of Colombia and Ecuador. Females have thick, heavy bodies and grow significantly larger than males. "[2] In an effort to establish standardized names for the amphibians and reptiles of North America, the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles (SSAR), a not-for-profit organization and one of the largest international herpetological societies, applied following nomenclature. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. viii, 376 pp. Polyvalent antivenom produced in Costa Rica recognized all the bands of both venoms from specimens at all ages tested, when assayed by Western blotting. Distribution of Bothrops asper in Tamaulipas, Mexico and a review or prey items. Farr, William L. and David Lazcano. A generalized ontogenetic diet shift occurs, with a higher percentage of ectothermic prey in juveniles, changing to a greater percentage of endothermic prey in adults, particularly small mammals. mass bands in the venoms from specimens of <1 year of age, with a change towards bands having lower mol. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Juveniles are often semiarboreal, and even adults are sometimes encountered in bushes and low trees. [5], The generic name, Bothrops, comes from the Greek words bothros and ops, which mean "pit" and "face" (or "eye"), respectively. phospholipase A2 activity, being more significant in the case of B. asper. The lancehead snakes Bothrops asper and Bothrops atrox inflict 70–90% of the 3000 bites reported every year in Colombia. [27], Venom yield (dry weight) averages 458 mg, with a maximum of 1530 mg (Bolaños, 1984)[27] and an LD50 in mice of 2.844 mg/kg IP. Schwartz, Albert and Robert W. Henderson. Se trata de una de las más grandes y venenosas especies que habitan la selva neotropical. [2], Bothrops asper is a diet generalist and is known to prey on a remarkably wide range of animals. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. atrox. Mga kasarigan. Comportamiento. El cuerpo es medianamente robusto, la cabeza grande, bien diferenciada y claramente triangular vista dorsalmente. In a review of bites from this species suffered by field biologists, Hardy (1994) referred to it as the "ultimate pit viper". (1991). Its proximity to human habitations and temperament are likely the reasons why it is considered more dangerous to humans than others. [6], Some of the common names applied to this snake are terciopelo ("velvet" in Spanish), fer-de-lance,[2] mapepire balsain (Trinidad), carpet labaria (Guyana), barba amarilla (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua; "yellow beard"), equis (Ecuador and Panama; "x"),[7] talla equis (Colombia), cuaima (Venezuela), nauyaca (México; from Nahuatl nahui, four, and yacatl, nose; "four noses"),[8] and yellow-jaw tommygoff (Belize). A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Maya World. [2], According to Campbell and Lamar (2004), its range in Ecuador extends as far south along the Pacific coast as El Oro Province and the Vilcabamba area of the Río Catamayo Valley. (2008). [2], Due to the casual and informal application of the name "Fer-de-lance" being applied to any number of species of Latin America pit vipers in the genus Bothrops, there is much confusion and misunderstanding, particularly in popular literature, as to proper nomenclature. Herpeton, Verlag Elke Köhler, Offenbach, Germany. To prevent water loss where they occur in drier regions, this species has more scales. Bothrops asper is a highly venomous pit viper species ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America. xiii, 351 pp. This species is often found near rivers and streams, basking in the sun during the day and lying still while well camouflaged in leaf litter or under forest cover waiting to ambush prey such as rats and mice that come within range during the night. Ang Bothrops atrox sakop sa kahenera nga Bothrops sa kabanay nga Viperidae. Estas últimas corresponden a los ofidios que poseen un par de dientes inyectores del veneno, situado a cada lado de la maxila y hacia el extremo posterior de ésta. [9][10] In English the name lancehead is applied to the genus Bothrops as a whole,[2] [9][11][4] and in combination with the majority of the species within the genus (e.g. The ventral side is yellow, cream, or a whitish gray, with dark blotches that are more frequent closer to the posterior end. Mating includes a series of movements of the male, which then slowly chases an accepting female. Toxicon 41(1): 19–22. The female then stops movement and extends her posture to mate. The specific epithet, asper, which is a Latin word meaning "rough" or "harsh", may allude to the species' keeled dorsal scales. Bothrops species can be distinguished by their broad, flattened heads which are set apart from the rest of their bodies. Ventrolaterally, B. asper has interchanging gray scales which are more pale towards the medial line. In the Colombian states of Antioquia and Chocó, it causes 50–70% of all snakebites, with a sequelae rate of 9% and a fatality rate of 6% (Otero et al., 1992). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. [2][12][13] Several herpetologist have preferred and argued to restrict the name fer-de-lance to the Martinique lancehead (Bothrops lanceolatus) from the Caribbean Island of Martinique but, popular usage has rarely recognized any distinction. buscando por internet me encontre con estas gigantes amazonicas las serpientes mas peligrosas de sud america la pregunta es buscando botrhops asper me aparece como fer de lance o cabeza de lanza y la botrhops asper me aparece como la famosa mapanare pero tambien me aparece como fer de lance estas 2 serpientes son las mismas o son parientes cercanos que confune termino … 2004. It chiefly inhabits tropical rainforest and evergreen forest, but it also occurs in drier areas of tropical deciduous forest, thorn forest and pine savannah near lakes, rivers and streams. Dark triangles with pale edges can be seen laterally, which range in number from 18 to 25. The head of this snake is light to dark brown or even black. Reports of invertebrate and insect remains in the digestive tracts along with frog and lizard remains are believed to represent secondary ingestion, however the dissection of several specimens containing only insect remains such as beetles (Coleoptera), and bugs (Hemiptera) are believed to reflect insects as primary prey too. [2][18] These are among the most sexually dimorphic of all snakes. They can, and often will, move very quickly,[2] usually opting to flee from danger,[19] but are capable of suddenly reversing direction to vigorously defend themselves. Facebook gives people the power to share … Although usually absent, it may have occipital blotches or streaks that range from indistinct to distinct. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. Waray hini subspecies nga nakalista. Sometimes referred to as the 'ultimate pit viper', these snakes are found in a wide range of lowland habitats, often near human habitations. It is less active in colder and drier periods. Greene, Harry W. (1997). There are even a few records from northern coastal Peru, with these snakes being reported in the Tumbes Region. [2] This species is reported to occur from seven (Bolívar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Esmeraldas, Guayas, Los Ríos and Pichincha) of the fourteen provinces along the Pacific slope of Ecuador. Las hembras son mucho más largas que los machos. Lemos Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon. (With CD). Herpetologists' League. Bothrops asper GARMAN 1883 Trigonocephalus colombiensis HALLOWELL 1845 Coluber lanceolatus LACÉPÈDE. Because of its proximity to human habitations and its defensive temperament, it is more dangerous to people than many other snakes. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Populations of Bothrops often referred to as Fer-de-lance on the island of Saint Lucia are Bothrops caribbaeus. [21] It is also known from the island of Gorgona off the Pacific coast of Colombia. Populations of Bothrops referred to as Fer-de-lance on the island of Martinique are regard as Bothrops lanceolatus. In 12 fatal cases, the cause of death was sepsis (5), intracranial hemorrhage (3), acute kidney injury with hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis (2) and hemorrhagic shock (1). Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Otero R, Tobón GS, Fernando Gómez L, Osorio R, Valderrama R, Hoyos D, Urreta JE, Molina S, Arboleda JJ. When cornered or threatened, this species can be very defensive and may exhibit an S-coiled defense display. An Bothrops asper in uska species han Viperidae nga ginhulagway ni Samuel Garman hadton 1883. Specimens may have a yellow zig-zag-shaped line on each side of the body. [1] [20], This is mostly a lowland species that, in Mexico and Central America, occurs from about sea level to 1,200 to 1,300 meters (3,900 to 4,300 ft) altitude. ed.). In South America, it apparently ranges to considerably higher elevations: up to 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) in Venezuela and at least 2,640 metres (8,660 ft) in Colombia according to herpetologist Lancini. They are, however, sometimes found at much higher elevations. A conspicuous ontogenetic variability was observed in venom samples from both species. Las escamas dorsales están fuertemente quilladas. Sasa M, Vázquez S. 2003. Endothermic prey species include: bay wren (Cantorchilus nigricapillus), grey-headed tanager (Eucometis penicillata), wren (Troglodytes), blue-black grassquit (Volatinia jacarina), Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), Desmarest's spiny pocket mouse (Heteromys desmarestianus), dusky rice rat (Melanomys caliginosus), Rothschild's porcupine (Coendou rothschildi), Brazilian cottontail (Sylvilagus brasiliensis), and least shrew (Cryptotis parva). Society for the Study Amphibians and Reptiles. One of the reasons so many people are bitten is because of its association with human habitation; many bites occur indoors (Sasa & Vázquez, 2003). Venom of adult specimens showed a higher number of peaks with indirect hemolytic activity than venom of newborn specimens. Reproduction is highly seasonal and in Costa Rica, reproductive cycles are tightly related to rainfall patterns. (2008). [1] No subspecies are currently recognized. Liner, Ernest A. 1992. El genérico nombre, Bothrops, proviene de los griegos palabras bothros y operaciones, lo que significa "pozo" y "cara" (o "ojo"), respectivamente.Esta es una referencia a altamente sensibles órganos de pozo de detección de calor estas serpientes. 511 pp. Durante el período 1982-1987 se estudiaron y trataron 279 casos humanos de mordeduras por diferentes especies de serpientes de los géneros Bothrops, Micrurus (Corales) y por colúbridos de los grupos opistoglifodontes. Dictionary of Herpetology. As a result, great confusion between it and other related species, most notably Bothrops atrox, which is similar in color but usually has yellow or rust-like tones and rectangular or trapezoidal blotches. 400 pp. DISTRIBUCION: • América del Sur, toda América Central y el sur de América del Norte. [24] This species is considered to be the most prolific of all snakes in the Americas. Krieger Publishing Co. Malabar, Florida. The type locality given is "Obispo, on the Isthmus of Darien" (Panama). The average number of offspring was 41.1 (14–86), whereas the total length of neonates ranged from 27 to 36.5 centimeters (10.6 to 14.4 in), and weighed from 6.1 to 20.2 grams (0.22 to 0.71 oz). i-iii, 1-113 pp. Its large size and habit of raising its head high off the ground can result in bites above the knee. Se encuentra estrechamente relacionada con B. atrox, y son usualmente confundidas entre sí. Adult specimens, when cornered and fully alert, are dangerous. Bothrops asper (common names Terciopelo [English], Cuatro Narices [Spanish], and often called the fer-de-lance among many other colloquial names, but see discussion under common names below) is a highly venomous pit viper species, ranging in distribution from southern Mexico to northern South America.It is found in a wide range of lowland habitats, often near human habitations. Snakebites in Central and South America: Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Clinical Management. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. It is also regarded as being more excitable and unpredictable than B. atrox. [2] Although both males and females display this behavior, only males have bright coloured tail tips. The home range of B. asper averages between 3.71 ha and 5.95 ha, which is comparatively small in relation to other pitvipers. [9] In their seminal opus on the venomous reptiles of the western hemisphere, Campbell & Lamar, stated "The name fer-de lance, widely used in North America with reference to B. asper and B. atrox, has no legitimate origin of use in regions inhabited by this snake. Krieger Publishing Co. Malabar, Florida. In the interspaces, there are dark, paravertebral blotches. This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 22:45. There is a great variety of colours on its dorsal side: olive, gray, light brown to dark brown, tan or sometimes nearly black. It is likely responsible for the majority of snakebite fatalities in northern Mexico and the greatest number of snakebites in the U.S. No subspecies is currently recognized. Snakes: The Evolution of Mystery in Nature. Lee, Julian C. (2000). The timing of breeding differs between populations in the Caribbean and Pacific lowlands. On the Pacific side, mating took place between September and November, with females giving birth between April and June. xx, 934 pp. : Alcatrazes lancehead (Bothrops alcatraz), Patagonian lancehead, (Bothrops ammodytoides), Andean lancehead (Bothrops andianus) etc.). (2009). It is found in a wide range of lowland habitats, often near human habitations. [27], Bite symptoms include pain, oozing from the puncture wounds, local swelling that may increase for up to 36 hours, bruising that spreads from the bite site, blisters, numbness, mild fever, headache, bleeding from the nose and gums, hemoptysis, gastrointestinal bleeding, hematuria, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness and tenderness of the spleen. El genero Bothrops tiene como características princípales, un cuerpo medio largo y robusto con colores llamativos y una cabeza con forma triangular incluyen un canto rostralis bien definido, un hocico sin elevación, una escama rostral que no es tan alta como lo es ancho, y una cola prensil. [12][13], This species likes moist environments, and occurs in most life zones located at low or middle elevations (up to 600 metres (2,000 ft)), excluding those with strong seasonal dry periods. ESPECIES: • B. jararaca • B. neuwiedi • B. jararacussu • B. alternatus • B. erythromelas • B. moojeni • B. atrox • B. asper 4. [19], Goliath birdeater spiders sometimes prey on the snake, despite it being one of the most venomous snakes in Central and South America.[29]. [27], This species is irritable and fast-moving. It is considered the most dangerous snake in Costa Rica, responsible for 46% of all bites and 30% of all hospitalized cases; before 1947, the fatality rate was 9%, but this has since declined to almost 0% (Bolaños, 1984), mostly due to the Clodomiro Picado Research Institute,[26] responsible for the production of snake antiophidic sera (which are also exported to other countries in Latin America and Africa) and scientific research on serpents and their venoms, as well as educational and extension programs in rural areas and hospitals. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica, A Herpetofauna between Two Continents, between Two Seas. The underside is most often pale yellow. 2017. Females will mate with more than one male during mating season. Más específicamente, en México y América Central Bothrops asper se encuentra al norte del sur de Tamaulipas y al sur de la península sudeste de Yucatán. Very big females can reach lengths up to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft), although this is uncommon. Juveniles are also known to exhibit caudal luring, a use of their differently colored tail tips to lure prey. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. La distribución de la serpiente terciopelo – Bothrops asper incluye la costa noroeste de Sudamérica desde Ecuador a Venezuela, Trinidad y el norte hasta México. Join Facebook to connect with Bothrops Asper Atrox and others you may know. [2] The name fer-de-lance has been used inconsistently and very informally with several species in the genus Bothrops having been called fer-de-lance at one time or another, most commonly Bothrops asper, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops caribbaeus, and Bothrops lanceolatus. [22], B. asper is nocturnal and solitary. Herpetological Circular No. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole venom for both species evidenced a predominance of high mol. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. On the Atlantic side, mating was observed in March, and births occurred between September and November. However both juveniles and adults, regardless of size or age, are known to opportunistically prey on ectothermic and endothermic species. 3.0 3.1; 5.0 5.1; Mga sumpay ha gawas Venoms from newborn and juvenile specimens showed higher lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming and coagulant activities, whereas venoms from 3-year old specimens showed higher indirect hemolytic, i.e. [23], Compared to the common lancehead, B. atrox, these snakes have been described as excitable and unpredictable when disturbed. (1994). In this work, the venoms of B. atrox from Meta (Villavicencio, 33 specimens) and B. asper from Antioquia (San Carlos, 45 specimens), all of them born in captivity, were obtained at different ages (0–6 months; 1, 2 and 3-years old) and compared in terms of their pharmacological and immunochemical characteristics. [2], Male-male combat in this species has not been observed. Neonates ranged in total length from 28 to 34.6 centimeters (11.0 to 13.6 in) and in weight from 6.7 to 13.1 grams (0.24 to 0.46 oz). Snakebite envenomation in Costa Rica: a revision of incidence in the decade 1990–2000. [1] Se halla en un amplio rango de hábitats de tierras de altitud altas, a menudo cerca de asentamientos humanos. In northern South America, it is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana and Venezuela. [2] They also have heads two or three times the size of males relative to their size and proportionally bigger fangs (typically 2.5 cm), as well. This species is the main cause of snakebite incidents within its range. Snakes of the Americas, Checklist and Lexicon. [19], The venomous bite of B. asper has been suggested to have been a factor in the choice of certain Mayan settlements, such as Nim Li Punit, Belize Central America, where the thick jungle inhabited by these snakes was used as a defensive boundary. Lillywhite, Harvey B. Savage, Jay M. (2002). The average number of offspring was 18.6 (five to 40) in this population. 23. ESPECIE: Bothrops asper NOMBRE VULGAR: • Serpiente X • X rabo de hueso • X rabo fino • X pachona 5. In both populations, gestation time ranged from six to eight months, and the size of a litter correlated significantly with the size of the female. Una ning gihulagway ni Hallowell 1845. Henderson, Robert W. and Robert Powell. This is the only Bothrops species that occurs on the island of Trinidad, although the situation there is complicated due to proximity of Trinidad to the Orinoco Delta where it may be sympatric with B. [20], Just a few of the documented ectothermic prey items include: centipedes (Scolopendra), beetles (Coleoptera), grasshoppers (Orthoptera), crayfish, eels (Synbranchus); caecilians (Dermophis), frogs (Eleutherodactylus, Leptodactylus, Smilisca), toads (Rhinella), amphisbaenians (Amphisbaena), lizards (Ameiva, Anolis, Ctenosaura), and snakes (Bothrops, Erythrolamprus, Ninia). In the state of Lara, Venezuela, it is responsible for 78% of all envenomations and all snakebite fatalities (Dao-L., 1971). Tipton, Bob L. (2005). It has also been observed to eject venom over a distance of at least 6 ft (1.8 m) in fine jets from the tips of its fangs (Mole, 1924). McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. [19], Across its geographic range, this species varies greatly phenotypically. La terciopelo (Bothrops asper) [2] es una especie de serpiente crotalina venenosa que se encuentra en América Central y el norte de Sudamérica. An isolated population occurs in southeastern Chiapas (Mexico) and southwestern Guatemala. Bothrops Asper Atrox is on Facebook. ", The name fer-de-lance is French (or possibly Créole), translating to "iron of the lance", "iron spear point" or simply "spearhead" or "lancehead". Standard Spanish, English and Scientific Names of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico (2nd. Scientific and common names for the amphibians and reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. La terciopelo o barba amarilla es una serpiente grande, que puede alcanzar los 250 cm, aunque el promedio de adultos varía entre los 140 y 180 cm de longitud. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. Southwestern Naturalist 62(1): 77-84. 1. Reptiles of Central America, 2nd Edition. The lancehead snakes Bothrops asper and Bothrops atrox inflict 70–90% of the 3000 bites reported every year in Colombia. This species has different patterns and colors on its dorsal and ventral sides and it exhibits a postorbital stripe. Warrell DA. Gel filtration chromatography showed five peaks in the venoms of B. asper of <6 months and in those from 3-year old specimens.

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